The Cullen Family - Later History
This page continues on from The Cullen Family - Early History section. In 1867 Luke Cullen was listed as living at 9 Bathurst Street, Hobart.1 At the beginning of the year Mark Cullen, Luke and Elizabeth's oldest child, married Martha Heron on 8 February 1867 in the district of Port Sorell, Tasmania.2 Martha was born in 1848 in Huddersfield, Yorkshire, England, to William Heron and Mary Cawthorne.3 Mark Cullen owned a Wheelwright and Blacksmith's shop in Latrobe in Tasmania and later two stores in the town and a third at the newly discovered Pieman River goldfield on the West Coast. He was also one of the first members of the Latrobe Federal Band.4
In the beginning of 1868 Luke was charged with disturbing the peace:
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 26TH, 1868.
Two men were fined 5s. each for drunkenness. DISTURBING THE PEACE.- Luke Cullen and Alexander Fitzpatrick, a soldier of the 2-14th Regt., were fined 5s. each for fighting in the bar of a public-house on the previous evening.
BEFORE the Stipendiary Magistrate and Mr. G. Wilson.5
A case of Cullen v. Cullen for maintenance was reported as Postponed sine die on 3 February 1869, and dismissed on 25 February 1869.6 Later that same year in December Elizabeth sought maintenance payments from Luke and according to the testimony they had separated:
MAINTENANCE.- Cullen v. Cullen.- An information for maintenance. Defendant, Luke Cullen, a wheelwright, said he did not refuse to support his wife, she left her home. Ordered to contribute 10s. a week, and pay costs in a week.7
An interesting aside from these domestic dramas was the report of a Luke Cullen as the sole survivor of a ship wreck off Wilson’s promontory in September 1870, probably Luke Cullen Jnr.:
The schooner Bertha, of Launceston, has been wrecked on Cape Liptrap Beach (near Wilson's Promontory.) The captain, two hands, and four passengers were drowned. There was of all on board only one survivor, Luke Cullen, and he reached Port Albert this evening.8
Luke Jnr. was certainly living in the north of the state as Luke Cullen, age 24, (Jnr) married Eliza Wilson, aged twenty-one, on 7 August 1871 in Deloraine, Tasmania.9 What were the origins of Eliza Wilson? Eliza, the daughter of Andrew Wilson and Janet Smeeton, born in 1851 in Westbury, may represent this person.
Back in Hobart the relationship between Luke Snr. and Elizabeth continued to deteriorate:
SURETIES OF THE PEACE. - Cullen v. Cullen. - The defendant did not appear, and as the summoning officer, Mr. Dorsett, proved the service of the summons at the man’s house; a warrant was ordered to be issued for his apprehension.10
Later that month another episode:
Monday, November 27th, 1871.
Before His Worship the Mayor...
Threatening Language.- Luke Cullen, charged on warrant with having used threatening language to his wife, was found guilty on her evidence and that of another witness, and was bound over to keep the peace for six months, himself in £20, and two sureties of £10 each.11
Luke and Elizabeth’s oldest sons were well away from the fray, with Mark Cullen recorded as holding the license of the Kentishbury Hotel in 1872.12 John Cullen however, like his brother Luke, was showing signs of delinquency:
OBSCENE LANGUAGE. - Charles Greenland, was charged with using obscene language in Campbell-street on the 21st inst. Acting-Sergeant Maum proved that the defendant had used the language complained of, in abuse of his wife. The defendant was fined 10s. or in default fourteen days' imprisonment. John Cullen for a similar offence, was fined 10s. in default fourteen days' imprisonment.13
John's behaviour later earned him the title "King of the larrikins" but even Elizabeth was subject to court action for obscene language:
Thursday, 18th April, 1872.
Indecent Language. - Elizabeth Cullen was charged on the information of Sub-Inspector McConnell with using obscene language in Murray street on the night of the 10th inst.
Constables McWilliams and Jackson proved the offence, and a witness named Robert Charlton, who was called for the defence, failed to throw any doubt on their evidence.
The Bench inflicted a fine of 10s. and costs.14
All of which depicts the typical behaviour of individuals who for some reason have been rendered unable to cope with the usual tasks of living, and in Elizabeth and Luke's case this was demonstrable in the behaviour of their children. Their son Charles was charged with stealing in March 1874:
CHARGE OF STEALING A LOCKET. - A boy named Charles Cullen, apprehended on a charge of stealing a locket of the value of 2s., was brought up, but in the absence of the prosecutor no evidence was offered, and prisoner was discharged.15
Edward Cullen was charged with stealing in May 1874 and the outcome was far more severe:
LARCENY. - Edward Cullen and James Fagan, youths, pleaded "not guilty" to stealing a pair of brass rowlocks, valued at 5s, the property of Francis Rush.
Mr. Moriarty appeared for the prisoner Fagan.
Francis Rush, fisherman, deposed that on the evening of the 27th of April, he left his boat at the fisherman's dock, having previously cleaned her. There were a pair of brass rowlocks left in the boat. On going to the boat on the following morning he found the rowlocks had been stolen. The rowlocks produced were his property.
The prosecutor's evidence was corroborated by a witness named John McLeod; he further added that he saw the prisoner Cullen sitting on the wharf near the boat on the evening of the robbery.
A boy named Timothy Brooks deposed that he saw the prisoner Fagan near the boat on the evening of the robbery.
Thomas Rawlings, brassfitter, Collins-street, deposed that the prisoner Cullen called at his shop on last Monday morning, and requested him to buy the rowlocks produced. Witness asked Cullen where he got the rowlocks and he replied that his father had sold his boat and that he had no further use for the rowlocks. He also said that his father's name was Williams. Told Cullen that Mr. Myles and Mr. Rush had lost some rowlocks, and that the police were looking for them. Cullen then said, "0 keep them, keep them," and ran away with another boy down the street. Witness made inquiries and learned that the rowlocks belonged to Rush. Witness subsequently delivered them up to Constable Maguire.
Constable Maguire proved the arrest of the prisoners. Fagan denied all knowledge of the theft, but on his way to the watchhouse he said he had not offered them for sale, and that it would have to be proved that he had stolen them before anything could be done to him. Cullen told the constable that he got the rowlocks from Fagan, in order to sell them.
The constable informed the Bench that the prisoner Fagan's mother was a hard working, industrious woman, but that she had lost all control over her son. The day previous to his arrest he had broken the windows in his mother's house.
The bench considered there was not sufficient evidence to convict Fagan, and he was discharged accordingly. Cullen was sentenced to 14 days' hard labour; at the expiration of that term the Police Magistrate ordered him to be removed to the training school for a period of two years.16
The full story of Luke and Elizabeth’s disintegrating relationship unfolded in the newspaper in July 1874 when Elizabeth again sought maintenance payments:
MAINTENANCE. - Luke Cullen, a man of middle age, and a wheelwright by trade, appeared on summons for neglecting to maintain his wife and family. His wife, a respectable looking woman, named Elizabeth Cullen, stated that she had been married to the defendant for a period of 35 years, and of late he had frequently left his home and gone drinking. On the last occasion, some days ago, when she went out to nurse a sick person, the bailiffs were put into the house for debt, and the defendant then went out to get money to relieve them, but he stayed by the way and drank the money, and did not make his appearance until a few nights ago, when he broke open the door and created a disturbance.He had contributed nothing towards either her or her family's support for some time back, although if he wished to work he could easily earn 8s. per day at his trade. The plaintiff stated she supported herself partially by going out nursing, but she had two children who were not able to provide for themselves. In answer to the defendant she stated that the landlord had taken his tools for rent, and she had pawned them for 15s. to pay what was due, but they could easily be relieved again if the defendant liked to go to work.
The defendant said he had been ailing for some time, and was then suffering from rheumatism.
The Police Magistrate stated that the defendant had been before the court on a similar charge three times before, and as for his rheumatics, it was well known to be only the effects of drink. He made an order for him to pay 10s. per week towards his family's support, and failing to do so, he would require to go to gaol.17
Elizabeth would have only been looking after one or two of the younger children by this time, while the older children were continuing to make their own way in the world. On 3 November 1874 John Cullen married Mary Ann Holmes in Hobart. John was recorded as twenty-three years old and Mary Ann was twenty-one, making her year of birth about 1853.18 What were Mary Ann Holmes' origins?
In June 1875 Mary Ann Cullen appeared in court for having caused a disturbance, the circumstances of which were not recorded.
A DISTURBER. - Mary Ann Cullen, pleaded guilty to the charge of having caused a disturbance on Tuesday night, and was fined 40s. 6d., or two months' imprisonment.19
Mary Ann's older brother Daniel Cullen, at the age of twenty-one, married Susan Fogarty, aged twenty-seven, on 4 April 1876 in Hobart, Tasmania. They would go on to have four children.20 What were Susan Fogarty's origins? Susan, the daughter of Thomas Fogarty and Elizabeth Wilcox, born in 1850 in Hobart, may be this person.
There was obvious conflict between members of the family which became public when Luke and Elizabeth's daughter Mary Ann assaulted her sister in-law Mary Ann Cullen, John Cullen's wife:
A FAMILY BRAWL. - This was an information laid by Mary Ann Cullen of Bathurst-street, against her brother's wife, Mary Ann Cullen, for having assaulted her in the Foresters' Hall, where dancing was going on, on the the night of the 9th October. Mr. Dodds appeared for defendant. The particulars of the assault, as related by complainant, are to the effect that defendant went up to complainant in the hall, and caught her by the hair of the head, striking her several times on the face with her fist. No provocation was given for the assault. The complainant denied having written a disgusting letter to defendant.
Her evidence was corroborated by a Mrs. Watson, [Daniel Cullen’s sister-in-law, Crimea Watson] who was also at the dance, and who witnessed the fracas. Mr. Dodds contended that the complainant had greatly provoked the defendant, not only by sending her to the letter produced, but by frequently calling after her to ask if she "had got over the blackguard letter yet." He called a woman named Butler, who deposed that she was dancing in the Foresters' Hall on the night in question, and saw the row. She considered that each party was equally to blame. They exchanged several blows. Witness had been asked by complainant to assist her in "pitching into" defendant. A man named Henry Dawson also saw the fight, and he parted the combatants. Complainant had been jeering at defendant earlier in the evening. The bench considered that the assault had been proved, and fined defendant 20s. and costs, she to undergo fourteen days' imprisonment in default of payment.21
A DISGRACEFUL BRAWL. - The time of the magistrates at the City Police Court yesterday was taken up by the investigation of a charge of battery, brought by a young woman named Cullen against her brother's wife. The assault took place at the Foresters' Hall on Monday evening last. This hall, it appears, is let to a dancing club, and the parties in the case were at the hall dancing when the assault took place. From the evidence, it appeared that a disgraceful fracas had taken place, and as no provocation was proved to have been given for it, the bench inflicted a fine upon defendant of £1 and costs. Although it may be said that people must spend their spare time somewhere, we certainly question the propriety of such places as the Foresters' Hall being let to such characters as those that figured at the Police Court yesterday.22
On 28 April 1877 Mary Ann Cullen, aged twenty-one, married George Charles Rawlings, twenty-two years old, in Hobart, Tasmania.23 George may have been the –
Native-born George [Rawlings who] was found guilty 9 April 1884 of Breaching the Merchant Seaman Act and sentenced to Eight Weeks. His warrant number [was] 15270. He arrived at CSG the same day when shown as 30 years-old, a gardener, Protestant with no prior convictions and literate. George was released 3 June. A search of BDM records show a George Charles Rawlings born Hobart, 21 November 1855. He is also shown marrying a Mary Anne Cullen at Hobart, 28 April 1877. He is shown as 22 years-old and Mary Anne, 21 years-old.24
Recrimination between Luke and Elizabeth had escalated to the point where she sought a protection order against him in September 1877:
CITY POLICE COURT--- before Police Magistrate and Captain Cowan J.P.
PROTECTION ORDER-- A petition was presented by Mr.Lucas on behalf of Elizabeth Cullen, wife of Luke Cullen, for a protection Order.
The applicant deposed that she was married to the defendant on April 16 1839 at Richmond, that she lived with him until the 9th May, 1877, when he deserted her. The application was granted.25
Nine months later Luke was charged with disturbing the peace with the added condition of being a continual offender:
CITY POLICE COURT.
TUESDAY, JUNE 25, 1878.
DISTURBING THE PEACE. - Luke Cullen, an elderly man, pleaded guilty to a charge of disturbing the peace in Liverpool-street on the previous evening; and, being continually an offender in a similar respect, was fined 20s. 6d., or, in default of payment, one month's imprisonment.26
Luke's status as "an elderly man" when at this point he was just 61 seems a little odd by today's standards, but Luke had lived a troubled life which would have added to his aged character. His children too were living troubled lives, with the following report just a sample of those available for John Cullen:
John Cullen and Wm. Moore were charged with having disturbed the public peace on the night of the 17th, on the New Town road. They pleaded guilty. There were six or seven previous convictions against Cullen, and one previous conviction against Moore. The former was fined 20a. 6d., or, in default, sentenced to imprisonment for one month; and the latter 10s. 6d., or, in default, imprisonment for 14 days.27
Robert Edward Cullen, age 22, seemed more settled, and he married Rebecca Rogers, age 22, on 1 February 1883 in Hobart, Tasmania and they had four children who have been traced.28 What were the origins of Rebecca Rogers? Rebecca, daughter of George Rogers and Martha Greig, born in 1861 in Gordon, may be this person.
Mark Cullen's wife Martha (nee Heron) died on 22 August 1883 in Port Sorell. Martha was listed as thirty-five years old and the wife of a storekeeper. The cause of death was recorded as paralysis, from a sudden stroke, unusual for such a young and active woman. In an odd twist the event was registered by the Latrobe district Mailman Frederick Brown.29 Her obituary follows:
[From our own Correspondent]
On Friday afternoon was witnessed one of the largest funerals ever seen on this town, when the last ceremonies were performed over the body of the late Mrs. Cullen, wife of Mr. Mark Cullen, storekeeper. Mrs. Cullen was quite well during the morning of Thursday, the 16th, but in the afternoon, without any warning, beyond slight pains in the head, she fainted, and when Dr. Smyth was called in he pronounced the case an attack of paralysis. All one side of the patient was quite useless, and almost all the time, till her death, which took place on Wednesday last, she was unconscious. Mrs. Cullen was only 35 years of age, and a very active person, carrying on a dressmaking business till the day she was attacked with this (the first) stroke of paralysis. Her husband is left with a number of small children, not one of whom is old enough to take charge of the rest of the family, and great sympathy is felt for the father in consequence. The Rev. Geo. Schofield conducted the funeral service in the Wesleyan Church and at the grave. The number of persons following to the grave was estimated at about 300.30
Mark remarried the following year on 26 January 1884 at the age of forty-three, in Hobart, to Maggie Clark, aged twenty-three.31 What were the origins of Maggie Clark? On 22 November 1884 there was a fire on the premises of Mark Cullen in Latrobe. An inquest was convened which determined that “there is not sufficient evidence to show how the fire by which the said house was burned down originated”.32 The premises "...was opposite the Oddfellows Hall. From family history it said that after he raised his children he went to Victoria as a shearer."33
Beginning in 1885 the next five years proved critical for the Cullens as the family suffered the loss of a number of their members. Daniel and Susan Cullen’s daughter Susan died on 3 June 1885 in Hobart.34 Cause of death?
Luke Cullen (Snr) died on 21 February 1886 in Hobart Town. He was recorded as 67 years old. The cause of death was recorded as disease of the kidneys, and dropsy, the latter referring to periodic fainting spells. Luke was living in his son John's house in Collins Street at the time of his death.35 Luke was buried in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery on 24 February 1886. His last recorded address was Collins Street, Hobart.36
Cullen.-On February 21. at his son's residence, Collins-street, Luke Cullen, in the 67th year of his age.37
Daniel Cullen's wife Susan Cullen (nee Fogarty) died on 19 February 1889 in Barrack Street, Hobart, Tasmania. Susan was recorded as being born in Tasmania, age 38, a labourer’s wife, and suffering from chronic pneumonia.38
Three months after Susan's death Mary (Ann) Rawlings, nee Cullen, married for a second time to John William Millhouse on 25 May 1889 in Hobart.39 John William Millhouse was born on 1 April 1859 in Hobart, the son of Richard Millhouse and Elizabeth Heath.40 Mary Ann and John would go on to have six natural children and they also adopted a daughter.
John Cullen died on 24 September 1889 in Hobart. It is believed this event was registered under the incorrect surname of Collins, which was in fact the place where John's death occurred.41 The event was reported in the Mercury:
DEATHS " On Sept 24, at 125 Collins St., John Cullen, in the 36th year of his age."42
John's burial was also recorded incorrectly when he was interred in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery, according to their records on 23 September 1889 with his last recorded address as Collins Street, Hobart.43
John was particularly close to his sister Mary Ann, demonstrated by a heart-felt memorial she placed in the newspaper the following year. Mary Ann and her husband John Millhouse were living with Elizabeth Cullen (nee Bunker) when she died on 23 November 1889 in Sandy Bay at the age of 70. The cause of death was recorded as chronic bronchitis. Elizabeth was recorded as a widow.44 The Mercury carried the following death notice in the Monday morning edition:
Cullen - On November 23 at her daughter's residence, Elizabeth Cullen, widow of the late Luke Cullen, aged 70 years. The funeral will leave her late residence, 29 Quale St. on Tuesday.45
Elizabeth was buried in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery on 25 November 1889 with her last recorded address as Sandy Bay.46
Location: Church of England, Section P
Image Provided by John Horton
The location in Cornelian Bay now is obviously one of the oldest in the cemetery, and is largely devoid of headstones so there is no physical remnant of their burial place. It seems a shame somehow that there is nothing to represent these people who struggled to contribute to the establishment of a new colony. No doubt every family feels that way about their ancestors.
With both Elizabeth and Luke gone, the remaining part of their story is to tell the fate of their children. Around 1890 Daniel Cullen began a liaison with Caroline Franklin, daughter of John Yard and Eliza Bellett, and they would have five children. No marriage record has been found for this couple. Caroline was born on 17 November 1859 in Sorell and had been married previously to Thomas Alfred Douglas. Thomas and Caroline had five children and the eldest was 10 when Caroline and Daniel began their family so combined with the children from Daniel's first marriage it amounted to a total of 14 children between them.47
Charles Robert Cullen died on 8 July 1891 in the General Hospital in Hobart. Charles was recorded as a Drayman, that he was born in Tasmania and died at the reported age of 28 from Typhoid Fever. No marriages were registered for Charles so it is presumed he remained single and childless.48
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area.49
Hobart was particularly affected by Typhoid Fever between 1887 and 1892, with -
… the summer of 1887/88 identified as the second year of a 5-year epidemic cycle. Three factors are used to explain the change from endemic to epidemic typhoid in the 1880s. Firstly, there was a sequence of hot, dry summers that affected water quality and the amount of water available for the cleansing of the street gutters. Secondly, there were changes to the system of disposal of excrement from cesspits to poorly organized pail and single-pan schemes which led to the causal disposal of sewage in the street gutters. Thirdly, the population increase of the 1880s followed 25 years of stagnation and led to overcrowding in existing, often deteriorated, buildings and the placement of new dwellings on small internal allotments.50
On 7 January 1895 George Cullen died in Elizabeth Street in Hobart. It was noted that George was born in Tasmania, and was employed as a licensed victualler, or hotel owner. We now know of course that he was actually born in England. According to Lynne Rhodes, George Cullen was related to the Tasmanian Cullen family but the exact relationship is unknown. Disturbingly, George died of suicide by hanging. It is not known at this point what may have led to this desperate act.51 As noted earlier George was buried in a plot in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery that was shared with members of Luke and Elizabeth Cullen’s family.52
Luke Joseph Cullen died on 21 March 1895 in the General Hospital in Hobart, Tasmania. Luke was recorded as Tasmanian by birth, was employed as a miner, and was reportedly age 44 when he died. He died from Bright's disease, or what would now be called Chronic Nephritis, an illness it would appear he shared with his father who also died from a Kidney related illness.53 Luke was buried in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery on 23 March 1895. His last recorded address was Collins Street, Hobart.54
CULLEN - On March 21st at Hobart, Luke Joseph Cullen. The funeral will leave his daughter's residence, 78 Collins-street, on SATURDAY AFTERNOON, at 3.30, for Cornelian Bay Cemetery, when friends are respectfully invited to attend.55
Edward Robert Cullen died on 2 June 1895 in the General Hospital in Hobart. In a cruel twist of fate Edward, like his brother Charles Robert Cullen, died of Typhoid Fever, he was only 36. He was recorded as born in Tasmania and working as a labourer. Edward was the third of Luke and Elizabeth’s children to die within 6 months, and the fourth in five years, all of them preventable to some extent.56
Two years later on 12 May 1897 Luke and Elizabeth’s youngest daughter Florence May married William Nichols in Strahan.57 They would have two daughters that have been traced. Their marriage was report in the Mercury:
NICHOLS-CULLEN.-On May 12, 1897, at Strahan Wesleyan Church, by Rev. G. A. Judkins, William, eldest son of the late W. Nicholls, to Florence (Flo) youngest daughter of the late Luke Cullen.58
Of Luke and Elizabeth’s remaining children, Mark Cullen died in August 1910 of pneumonia and was interred privately in Coburg, Victoria.61 Daniel Cullen died on 2 March 1913 in the General Hospital in Hobart.62 Daniel was buried in the Cornelian Bay Cemetery on 4 Mar 1913. His last recorded address was Dunn Street, Hobart.63
Florence Nichols, nee Cullen, is recorded as dying on 24 June 1918 at the age of 45 in Hobart, although this would make her calculated birth year 1873 instead of her known birth year of 1866.64
NICHOLS -On June 24, 1918, at the Homoeopathic Hospital, Hobart, Florence (Flo) the beloved wife of William Nichols, of Devonport, in the 45th year of her age.
NICHOLS.-Friends are respectfully informed that funeral of the late Mrs. William Nichols will move from the residence of Mr. Huntingdon (Tea gardens), Main-road, Moonah, at 10 o clock This Morning.65
Mary Ann Millhouse, formerly Rawlings, nee Cullen, died on 11 December 1932 in Moonah, Tasmania. The Mercury reported the event and noted Mary Ann's status as the last of Elizabeth and Luke Cullen's children to pass away:
MILLHOUSE.-Passed peacefully away on December 11, 1932, at her residence, 42 Central Avenue, Moonah, Mary Ann, dearly beloved wife of John William Millhouse and loved and loving mother of Len, Cliff, and Gladys, and only surviving daughter of the late Luke and Elizabeth Cullen of Hobart, in the 77th year of her age. Loved by all.
MILLHOUSE.-Funeral of the late Mrs. Mary Ann Millhouse will move from her residence, 42 Central Avenue, Moonah, on Tuesday (To-morrow) at 3 o'clock for Cornelian Bay Cemetery.66
Mary Ann's husband John William Millhouse died the following year on 13 July 1933:
MILLHOUSE.-On July 13, 1933 (suddenly), at the residence of his daughter Mrs. H. Oakley), 48 Central Avenue,. Moonah, John William, relict of the late Mary Ann Millhouse, of Moonah, aged 75 years. At rest.
MILLHOUSE.-Funeral of the late Mr. John William Millhouse will move from the residence of his daughter (Mrs. H. Oakley), 48 Central Avenue, Moonah, on Saturday (To-morrow), at 2.30 p.m., arriving Cornelian Bay Cemetery 2.45 p.m.67
- 1. Rootsweb: Residents of Hobart, Tasmania; http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mwi/hobart1.txt
- 2. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1867/552
- 3. Ancestors of Lorna Cullen: Provided by Marion Cartledge
- 4. Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 5. The Mercury Thursday 27 February 1868
- 6. The Mercury 3 February 1869 and 25 February 1869
- 7. The Mercury Saturday 26 December 1868
- 8. The Mercury Tuesday 13 September 1870
- 9. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1871/48
- 10. The Mercury 6 November 1871.
- 11. The Mercury Tuesday 28 November 1871
- 12. Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 13. Mercury, 29 March 1872.
- 14. Mercury, 19 April 1872.
- 15. Mercury, 27 March 1874.
- 16. Mercury, 15 May 1874.
- 17. The Mercury Hobart Saturday 18 July 1874, p.2
- 18. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1874/311 and Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 19. The Mercury, 10 June 1875.
- 20. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1876/285
- 21. The Mercury 13 October 1876
- 22. The Mercury 13 October 1876
- 23. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1877/317 and Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 24. Maritime Misdemeanors: Graves of Tasmania; http://gravesoftas.dynup.net/
- 25. The Mercury Sept 10 1877, p.2
- 26. The Mercury 26 June 1878
- 27. The Mercury 21 December 1881
- 28. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1883/504
- 29. AOT Death Registration RGD 1883/722
- 30. The Mercury 1 September 1883
- 31. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1884/317
- 32. AOT Inquest SC195/1/64 No 8887 1884
- 33. Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 34. AOT Death Registration RGD 1885/2446
- 35. AOT Death Registration RGD 1886/2945
- 36. SRCT Church of England, Section P, Number 122
- 37. The Mercury Saturday 6 March 1886
- 38. AOT Death Registration RGD 1889/403
- 39. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1889/293
- 40. AOT Birth Registration RGD 1859/2317
- 41. AOT Death Registration RGD 1889/793
- 42. The Mercury Saturday 28 September 1889, p.4
- 43. SRCT Church of England, Section P, Number 123
- 44. AOT Death Registration RGD 1889/906
- 45. The Mercury 25 November 1889
- 46. SRCT Church of England, Section P, Number 122
- 47. Jarvis, Sharmaine and Murtagh, Rose: Family History Research into the Bellette family
- 48. AOT Death Registration RGD 1891/481
- 49. Reproduced from http://www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/article.htm
- 50. Reproduced from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2683121
- 51. AOT Death Registration RGD 1895/1513
- 52. SRCT Church of England, Section J, Number 1
- 53. AOT Death Registration RGD 1895/15 and Julie: Family Tree 101 at Gencircles; http://www.gencircles.com/users/jlabree/3
- 54. SRCT XXXX
- 55. The Mercury Friday 22 March 1895
- 56. AOT Death Registration RGD 1895/139
- 57. AOT Marriage Registration RGD 1897/910
- 58. The Mercury Wednesday 2 June 1897
- 59. TFI Death Registration RGD 1900/1644
- 60. SRCT Roman Catholic, Section CC, Number 44
- 61. The Argus Tuesday 16 August 1910 (Page 1)
- 62. TFI Death Registration RGD 1913/1253 and Davis, Becci: Rootsweb WorldConnect Project; http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/
- 63. SRCT Church of England, Section V, Number 457
- 64. TFI Death Registration RGD 1918/XXXX
- 65. The Mercury Wednesday 26 June 1918
- 66. The Mercury Monday 12 December 1932
- 67. The Mercury Friday 14 July 1933