Charlotte Kearley and John George Wheatley
Charlotte Kearley was born 4 June 1811 in Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land, and christened 12 September 1812, the daughter of George Kearley and Mary Cook.1 The Kearley's fifth child and eldest daughter, Charlotte was born while her father was still part of the regiment of Royal Marines garrisoned at Hobart Town until 1813. Shortly after she moved with her family to a 140 acre property on the Jordan River. In 1823 a "Return of the Juvenile Population of Black Brush, Van Diemen's Land requiring Education - from Four to Sixteen years of age" records a nine year old daughter of George Kearley, presumably Charlotte, who could read. If Charlotte could read later evidence suggests she couldn't write.2 It was in the Black Brush area that Charlotte met and later married an Irish convict by the name of John Wheatley.
John George Wheatley was tried at Leicester Borough Assizes on 4 May 1821 where he was found guilty of Grand Larceny. It was here that he stated his age as 15, which would make his birth year about 1806. For his crime he was sentenced to seven years transportation. His Gaol Report describes him as a 'Very Dangerous Character', although his Hulk Report described his conduct as Orderly.3 Of course the dangerous tag may have been applied purely because he was Irish, who were commonly political prisoners at the time.
John Wheatley was one of about 6,000 Irishmen living in England (mainly in the two urban centres Lancashire and London) who became caught up in the criminal classes and were sentenced to transportation to Australia (nearly 4% of all convicts transported to Australia).4 He or his family probably migrated to England in an effort to find employment and although he stated that his age was 15 he was probably 18 when he arrived in Van Diemen’s Land. His birthday recorded in the Wheatley family bible is 22 October 1802.5 Fellow Wheatley researchers Jean and Reg McDonnell have suggested that ‘The marriage of John Wheatley and Mary Noghton on 27 December 1802 at Cork, Macroom, Ireland may refer to John George's parents.’6
Leicestershire and Surrounding Area
John Wheatley was described on his convict record as follows:
- Trade - Frame Work Knitter
- Height – 5' 3 ½"
- Age - 15
- Eyes - Grey
- Hair - Light Brown
- Native Place - County Cork, Ireland
- Marks - Man on left arm, Scar under chin.7
[A framework knitter was] an occupation almost unique to the counties of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire. The legacy of the Framework Knitters, spanning some 250 years, is evident today in the Hosiery, Knitwear and Cut and Sew Trades of the East Midlands.
To find the origins of Framework Knitting, we have to go back to the late sixteenth century, when Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne. At that time in wool producing areas, such as the East Midlands, many people of the poorer classes supplemented their income by hand knitting socks. Men, women and children in every village and town could be seen knitting. Individuals were organised by Middlemen who worked for factors and agents. Wool was supplied, finished goods collected and payment made for the quantity and quality of goods produced. A not unfamiliar cottage industry system of production. …
[A] remarkable invention for 1589, … the new machine produced flat plain knitting in a continuous piece some twelve inches wide. There were eight stitches to the inch and the heavy worsted would probably be between modern four-ply and double knitting wool. It was certainly as good as the heavy-duty long hose that the hand knitters were producing.8
John Wheatley's crime was not specified on his convict record. It was not unusual for individuals involved in the fabric trade to steal the odd bolt of cloth. After sentencing he would have been transported to one of the hulks for the three month delay until transportation. It was probably during this time that John had a man tattooed on his left arm. A tattoo provided a visible link for a convict to his past or to his culture, which couldn’t be removed by incarceration. John’s tattoo of a man may have been an unsuccessful attempt at religious iconography or more likely an image of a workman, an attempt at illustrating his previous place in society- a factory worker and a free man.9
John was transported to Van Diemen’s Land on the Claudine. The Claudine was built in Calcutta in 1811 with a tonnage of 452 and was making her first [and only] voyage to the colonies. The Master was J[oh]n. Crabtree and the Surgeon H[enr]y Ryan.10
The Claudine's Surgeon kept the usual log, or diary, with the first entry made for 13 August 1821. On that day they “received One Hundred Prisoners from the Justinia Hulk, issued their bedding, and put them into messes of six each."11 With the vessel eventually containing 160 men we can't be sure which hulk John came from. The typical routine aboard ship was to rise at 6 am and immediately air their bedding. During the day the men were regularly required to clean the ship, or various individuals would be assigned to cooking, assisting the ships surgeon, and shaving their fellow passengers. The convicts were then mustered on deck, typically at 6 p.m., and sent down below for the night.
On 24 August 1821 the ship "Left Woolwich at 11 am ... [and] arrived at Gravesend at 6 PM & anchored. [On 25 August they] ... sailed from Gravesend at 6 PM." During the journey the prisoners were also issued with Bibles and prayer books to occupy their free time, while the younger passengers (‘boys’) were schooled. Convicts are occasionally named during the record as being chained in irons, or having the irons removed, often for not attending musters, or visiting areas of the ship forbidden to them. On 2 September 1821 "One shirt and one pair of buck trousers were delivered to each prisoner." At various times the prisoners were woken at 4 or 5 am and expected to wash their clothes for the coming day.
From mid-September Henry Ryan "Issued Lime Juice & Sugar to the Convicts & Guards" on a regular basis, and occasionally he "issued half a pint of wine to each prisoner". These preventative measures kept the death rate down considerably, and the wine probably contributed to easing any sense of insubordination. Only minor ailments were treated during the journey until the morning of 3 December 1821 when the Surgeon was awoken to attend to the convict Thomas Bolton at 3am who was "Complaining much of the pain in his stomach", and after various treatments during the day "he continued in this state till 6 pm, when he expired. At 4am [the next day] all Hands on Deck committed the body of Thomas Bolton to the Deep." Thomas' was the only death of the voyage.
After battling gale force winds during the last days of their journey they came to anchor in the Derwent on 15 December at 1pm after 113 days at sea. Compared with some, this trip was made in relatively good time.
John George Wheatley had to endure the usual administrative processing upon landing, which included recording his description and his confessed offence. The muster lists sent to the home office in London show he was assigned to George Kearley in 1823 and 1825.12 By 1826 he had his ticket of leave and on 22 February 1826 he was "Ch[ar]ged with enticing Mr. Carley's [sic] dau[ghte]r from her Residence at the B[lack]. Brush Dis[trict]."13 The magistrate Thomas Allen Lascelles discharged him without punishment, perhaps Lascelles seeing the lack of any previous blemishes on John’s conduct record was prepared to give him the benefit of the doubt. It is probably a romantic notion but it is easy to imagine John sneaking up to the Black Brush farm house and throwing stones at Charlotte's bedroom window to entice her outside, a little in the tradition of Braveheart.
FIG. 28. JOHN GEORGE WHEATLEY'S CONVICT CONDUCT RECORD
Image Reproduced Courtesy of the Archives Office of Tasmania
The relationship obviously prospered because just over two years later Charlotte Kearley and John George Wheatley were named as the parents of a baby boy, William John George Wheatley, born 1 March 1828 in the Brighton district.14 John’s sentence expired on 4 May 1828.15 Having attained respectability John Wheatley married Charlotte Kearley at St. Matthew's Church, New Norfolk on 27 November 1828. They had their infant son baptised on the same day. Charlotte's surname reads as Kirby on the marriage register and has been transcribed as this in the Tasmanian Pioneer Index. She signed the certificate with a cross (her mark). At that time John George Wheatley recorded his age as 26 which would confirm his birth year as 1802. They were married by Banns and the witnesses were William Gibbins of Black Brush and W. J. Ring.16
The Wheatley's second child Rebecca was born 1 March 1830 although the event was not registered. The event is recorded in the Wheatley family bible which lists also that the family were living in the Parish of Strangford, presumably on George Kearley’s 150 acre property at Mangalore Tier.17 A third child Hiram Charles Wheatley was born 11 January 1832 and baptised 7 March in Hobart Town. His parents abode was Black Brush.18
On 1 November 1832 Charlotte inherited, by a Deed of Gift from her father, 50 acres of the 150 acre property George Kearley had been granted at Mangalore Tier and registered in 1827.19
Although a respectable family man now and free by servitude, John George Wheatley found himself in trouble with the authorities on 19 September 1833 when he was charged with "Suffering and Permitting James Allsop, a prisoner of the crown, to remain on his premises."20 The Police magistrate Frederick Roper and justice of the peace John Ogle Gage dismissed the charges.
James Allsop had arrived in the colony 28 July 1829 aboard the Lady Harwood after being convicted of "Stealing an Ass" in Warwick. He was sentenced to 14 years transportation and had a number of prior convictions. His behaviour did not improve once he arrived in the colony, with numerous transgressions over the next 12 years. Strangely enough the incident involving John Wheatley doesn't get a mention on Allsop's conduct record.21
A mere two months later on 29 November 1833 Charlotte and John's fourth child Thomas George was born at Black Brush and christened just over a year later on 14 December 1834.22 This was followed on 7 March 1836 by the birth of Maria Louisa, the couple's second daughter. Maria was baptised the following month on 19 April with her parent’s abode recorded as Black Brush and John's occupation as ‘farmer’.23
On 21 April 1836 John Wheatley purchased a 100 acre farming property at Mangalore Marsh that eventually became known as Hope Vale. The price for the property was £430, which he paid with £200 in cash and two bills of exchange one for £110 and the other for £120. The property had been originally granted to George Hermitage (Armytage) who had sold it to Mark Hillas in 1830.24 George Armytage was an important early settler of the Bagdad area. He built one of the earliest water mills in the area and profited by grinding wheat to flour for the settlers in the Brighton/Bagdad district. He migrated to Victoria in 1847 to join his sons. His children including his son-in-law Gallately inherited the Bagdad properties after his death in 1862.25
The family presumably moved to the Hope Vale property in Black Brush soon after their purchase and it would have been here that George Henry Wheatley was born on 3 July 1838. The infant was christened on 1 August 1838 at Holy Trinity Church in a ceremony performed by P. Palmer.26
On 6 June 1839 John Wheatley applied to the Lands Survey Department to have the 50 acres George Kearley had given to Charlotte formerly transferred into Charlotte and his name. In the application John Wheatley stated that the land was occupied by his tenant, Edward Roach, and not himself.27 This seems to confirm that he and Charlotte were living on their Hopevale property. The Commissioner's Office published the claim as follows:
John Wheatley, 50a., Parish of Strangford, County of Monmouth, originally George Kearley, who conveyed to his daughter, the applicant's wife; claim dated the 1st February, 1839.-Bounded on the north cast by 37 chains 20 links north westerly along that portion of location to tlie said George Kearley which is now claimed by James Argent, thence on the north west by 13 chains SO links south westerly along crown land, thence on the south west by 37 chains 30 links south easterly along location to G. L. Perriman, and thence on the south east by 13 chains fll) links north easterly »long another location to the aforesaid George Kearley to the point ol' commencement.28
On 21 September 1839 John gave notice to his neighbours about his application:
I hereby give you and each of you Notice that I have caused application to be made for a grant from the Crown of the tract of Land described below and unless you oppose the same it will be issued accordingly.29
Also on 6 June 1839 John Wheatley purchased the 32 acres of land adjoining his Hopevale property from Gamaliel Butler. The 32 acres had originally been granted to Joseph Phelan and was known at the time as ‘Phelan’s farm.30
John and Charlotte's third daughter and seventh child, Eliza Rosetta, was born 28 August 1840. The government had established registers in December 1838 for recording births, deaths and marriages and had made it a legal requirement for people to report these events within six weeks of their occurrence. Consequently Charlotte registered her daughter’s birth stating her residence only as ‘Black Brush’ on 25 September 1840. The Church also provided birth information to the Government for the years prior to government registration and for a short while after and this is probably why Eliza’s birth appears twice in the Government register. She was baptised at Holy Trinity on 14 October 1840 by Reverend P. Palmer.31
For the Census taken 7 January 1842 John Wheatley is recorded as residing at Mangalore Marsh. The dwelling house was built of brick and complete, with nine inhabitants other than the head of the house. The family comprised John and Charlotte, and their children William, Rebecca, Hiram, Thomas, Maria, George, and the baby Eliza. There was one "Other Free Person”, a male emancipist aged between 21 and 45 living with them presumably as a paid labourer. The actual return of occupants therefore totals 10.32
John and Charlotte's fourth daughter Emma was born the same year on 7 December 1842 and was baptised 18 January 1843 in St Mark’s Church. John registered the birth 31 December 1842.33 Emma’s birth was reflected in the next census of 1843 which was incorrectly ascribed to ‘James’ Wheatley. Otherwise the census return provides the same information as in the previous year.34 Another daughter Charlotte was born 23 April 1845 and baptised 25 May 1845 at St. Mark's Church in Pontville. John Wheatley again registered the birth 14 May 1845.35 For both events his profession was recorded as Farmer.
FIG. 29. THE WHEATLEY FAMILY'S CENSUS RETURN 1842
Reproduced courtesy of the Archives Office of Hobart
Two years later John and Charlotte's son Frederick Joseph was born 24 May 1847 and baptised 18 July 1847 at St. Mark's. John Wheatley was in attendance, along with E. and N.A. Chaplin. John Burrows was the officiating minister. John registered the birth 29 May 1847.36 A further son, Edward Evans Wheatley, was born 7 September 1849 and baptised at St. Mark's 7 October 1849. The sponsors named for this child were Richard Tunks, Henry Green and Caroline Chaplin. Once again John Burrows performed the ceremony. John registered the birth 13 September 1849.37
In July 1850 Charlotte registered the birth of her niece Emma Argent,38 and in early 1851 John and Charlotte were sponsors for the christening of Charlotte Mundy, daughter of John and Eliza Mundy, on 11 April in St. Mark's Church. Pontville. By the end of the year Charles Lewis Wheatley, John and Charlotte's 12th child, was born on Christmas Day 1851 and baptised in the New Year on 14 March 1852, once again at St. Marks. James Binns, Hiram Wheatley and Elizabeth Davis were listed as sponsors.39 Two months later however John and Charlotte's daughter Maria Louisa died on 26 May 1852 at the age of 16 with the cause of death stated as inflammation of the lungs. This was the only loss of direct family they had suffered thus far and it must have dealt a dreadful blow, particularly as she had survived the rigours of early childhood.40
The birth of Alfred James the following year on 6 May 1853 might have provided some consolation to the couple. He was baptised at St Marks on 29 August 1853. John George attended the christening, and was joined by the newlyweds W. Sharpe and Rebecca Sharpe. The abode for all the baptisms was recorded as Black Brush and John's quality or profession as Farmer.41
Shortly after the birth of Alfred on 11 June 1853 John and Charlotte sold their 50 acre property on Mangalore Tier to Mr. W. Drinkwater.42 At some stage during this period John had managed to take ownership of an additional 100 acres which added to his purchase of 32 acres in 1839 making the Hopevale property a total land holding of 132 acres.
Mr J.F. Wheatley of Brighton was a signatory to a farewell letter to William Smith O'Brien published by the Mercury in 8 July 1854. William "was the leader of the young Ireland movement [who] ... was transported to Tasmania together with other Irish political prisoners but his life sentence was later commuted and he was pardoned in 1856." While not conclusive, it is probable that the signatory was in fact John George Wheatley and the newspaper made a typographical error. The letter was as follows:
To William Smith O’Brien, Esq.
4th July 1854
Dear Sir- On the eve of your departure from this colony, we, the undersigned inhabitants of Hobart Town and its vicinity, beg leave to offer you and your companions, Messrs Martin and O’Doherty, our sincere congratulations upon your restoration to freedom.
It affords us pleasure to testify that your sojourn amongst us has been marked by the same high gentlemanly spirit which had previously distinguished your public career.
However many of us differ from you as to the merits of the cause which led to your expatriation, we must all respect the purity and the disinterestedness of your motives, and admire the fortitude with which you have born up against the privations which an ardent devotion to what you deemed the interest of your country, entailed upon you.
With the fervent hope that in the enjoyment of freedom and the society of your family and friends the recollection of all that has been painful and irksome in your captivity may soon be obliterated from your mind.43
John was registered as the informant for the deaths of his father and mother in-law George and Mary Kearley, which occurred 8 March 1855 and 23 June 1859 respectively. On both occasions he is listed as J. G. Wheatley of Black Brush.44 At this time he was an active member of the Order of Odd Fellows, according to their own testimony:
...a benevolent and social society, sometimes classified as a friendly benefit society having initiatory rites and ceremonies, gradation or degrees in membership, and mystic signs of recognition and communication. While Odd Fellowship is not a religious institution, many of its principles, tenets, practices, and objectives are based upon the teachings of the Holy Bible. Many of the rites and ceremonies, of ritual and lectures, the secret passwords, signs, and counter-signs, have a Biblical origin or significance.
Any friendly and benevolent society is a mutual association of individuals which has as its chief purpose the welfare of its members. One of its primary aims is to provide its members with aid when suffering for the needs of life because of illness, unemployment, or other misfortunes. The relief or sustenance of members, of their families and close relatives, of their widows and orphans in case of death, appears to have been the chief purpose of the organization of Odd Fellowship in its beginning.45
of the LOYAL BRIGHTON LODGE,
of the ANCIENT AND INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS.
The fourth Anniversary Dinner of the above Lodge was celebrated yesterday evening, at Brother Host Davis', Brighton, in the elegant Lodge-room attached to the Tasmanian Inn. [There followed a lengthy description of the venue with praise for the host]. The chair was occupied by the D. G. M. Brother E. H. Ivey, who was supported on the right by N. G. Edward Chaplin, visiting Alderman Thomson aud Brother W. Butler ; and on the left by G. L. M. Brothers Fred. Cane, G. D. Riley, and G. D. Edwards. The Vice Chair was occupied by W. G., Brother John Davies, supported on the right by P. G. Brother J. George Wheatley, and on the left by P. G. Brother Goodwin.46
John was also the informant for the death of his daughter Rebecca Green on 4 May 1870.47 Rebecca was the second of John’s children, and daughters along with Maria, to die before their father.
John George's will was drafted a little under seven years before his death on 19 December 1877 and reads:
This is the Last Will and Testament of me John George Wheatley of Oakvale [sic] in the district of Brighton in Tasmania, Farmer, whereby I give, devise and bequeath all my real and personal estate of what nature and kind ... and wheresoever ... unto my trustee hereinafter named. To hold to him and his heirs. On trust for my wife Charlotte Wheatley for the term of her natural life for her sole and separate use free from marital control and from and after her decease in trust for my sons Hiram Charles Wheatley and Alfred James Wheatley and their heirs absolutely as tenants in common. I appoint William Burgess of Battery Point, Hobart Town in Tasmania aforesaid Trustee and Executor of this which revoking all others I declare to be my last will and testament.48
John George Wheatley died on 6 June 1884 in Brighton, Tasmania at the age of 82. The cause of death was recorded as "Decay of Nature", an archaic reference to the decline of old age. His son Hiram Charles was the informant.49
The following notice appeared in The Mercury on Monday Morning, June 9, 1884:
WHEATLEY. - On Friday, June 6, at his residence, Hope Vale, Brighton, John George Wheatley, aged 82 years. His funeral will move from Mr. Green's residence, Brighton, on TUESDAY (To-morrow), June 10, at 2 pm.
An obituary appeared in the same edition of the paper, a dramatic example of how the reinvention of history was beginning to take place in an attempt to forget the colonies convict past:
Obituary.-Another old identity has crossed "the bourne from which no traveller returns." We allude to Mr. J. G. Wheatley, whose death took place at his residence, Hope Vale, near Brighton, on Friday last. Mr. Wheatley arrived In the colony when quite a boy, and engaged in the pursuit of whale-fishing.- Having made money at that, he settled down upon his farm at Brighton nearly 50 years ago, where he has lived ever since. At the time of his death he had reached the ripe age of 82 years. He leaves a large family, including several grandsons, to mourn his loss. Mr. Wheatley was at onetime well known in sporting circles. His funeral will take place tomorrow at 2 p.m.
John was buried at St. Mark's Cemetery in Pontville. His headstone reads:
A voice is from our household gone,
a voice we loved is still,
A vacant place is on our hearth
that never can be filled.50
FIG. 30. HEADSTONE OF JOHN AND CHARLOTTE WHEATLEY
Image Provided by Annette Wilson
The Probate of his will recorded that John Wheatley's estate at the time of his death "did not exceed in value the sum of Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds."51
Charlotte survived her husband by 8 years and died on 27 November 1892. The death register records Charlotte as a Farmer's Wife, aged 81 years, with the cause of Death listed as "Decay of Nature". Charlotte's son in-law Henry Green was the informant.52
The Mercury reported the event on Tuesday Morning, November 28, 1892:
WHEATLEY. - On November 27, at her residence, Hope Vale, Charlotte, relict of the late John George Wheatley, aged 82 years. The funeral will take place at St. Mark's Church, Pontville, the 29th inst. at 2 o'clock.
Charlotte is buried with her husband John George Wheatley at Pontville in St. Marks Church Cemetery.
FIG. 31. JOHN GEORGE WHEATLEY
Image Provided by Julie Booth
FIG. 32. CHARLOTTE KEARLEY
Image Provided by Julie Booth
- 1. AOT Baptism Registration RGD 1812/245 and NS282/8/1/1-4, cited in Smee, C. J. & J.S. Provis: The Pioneer Register Volume XI; Spit Junction, New South Wales, 1981 and 1987. Original source for the birth date is the Wheatley family Bible held in the Archives office of Tasmania (AOT) in the Wheatley correspondence file
- 2. A Return of the Juvenile Population of the Black Brush Requiring Education
- 3. AOT: Convict Conduct Record. [CON 31/45 p. 344]
- 4. Shaw, A.G.L: Convicts & the colonies, Faber, Whitstable, 1966, p 166
- 5. AOT: Copy of pages from the Wheatley family bible in the Wheatley correspondence file; A copy is also held by Barbara Hobbs.
- 6. International Genealogical Index, Church of Jesus Christ and Latter Day Saints [IGI Ireland, p. 29503, Springwood Library, accessed by Jean McDonnell]
- 7. AOT: Convict Description List [CON 23/3 no. 344]
- 8. Poyzer, Stephen, quoted at Wirksworth Website: http://www.wirksworth.org.uk/A11-FWK.htm
- 9. Bradley, John and Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish: ‘Convict Tattoos and the transportation system’, In Duffied, Ain & Bradley, James (eds) Representing convicts, New perspective on convict forced labour migration, Leicester University Press, London, pp. 195-196.
- 10. Bateson, Charles: The Convict Ships 1787-1868; Brown, Son and Ferguson, Glasgow [pp. 358-359 & p 383]
- 11. AOT: Surgeons Report, Claudine [Adm. 101/17 Reel 3191]
- 12. AOT: Home office muster returns [HO 10/44 Reel No. 77 and 78]
- 13. AOT: Convict Conduct Record [CON 31/45 p. 344]
- 14. AOT: Register of Births for New Norfolk, 1828, [RGD 32/1 registration no. 2872] St Mathew’s Baptism Register [NS 489/1]
- 15. AOT: Convict Conduct Record [CON 31/45 p. 344]
- 16. AOT: Register of Marriages New Norfolk, 1828 [RGD 36/ 1 registration no. 1205] St Mathews Marriage Register [NS 489/1]
- 17. Smee: The Pioneer Register; AOT: Wheatley family bible in the Wheatley correspondence file.
- 18. AOT: Register of Births Hobart 1832 [RGD 32/1 registration no. 4214]; St David’s Baptism Register [NS 282/8/1-5]
- 19. AOT: Application for a 50 acre Grant District of Strangford 25 October 1839 [SC 285 Report No. 91]
- 20. AOT: Convict Conduct Record [CON 31/45 p. 344]
- 21. AOT: Convict Conduct Record [CON31/1]
- 22. AOT: Register of Births Green Ponds, 1834 [RGD 32/2 registration no. 5911] Kempton, Church of England Baptism Register [NS 356/9].
- 23. AOT: Register of Births Hobart, 1836 [RGD 32/2 registration no. 6919]; St. David’s Baptism Register: [NS 282/8/1-5].
- 24. Deeds Office, Property Services, Primary Industry, Water & Environment: Mark Hillas to J. Weatley [sic] 21/4/1836, General Law Deeds Volume 1 folio 6207; G. Armytage to Mark Hillas 13/9/1830 General Law Deeds Volume 1 folio 701.
- 25. Brown, P,L, ‘Armytage, George’ In Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), Volume 1: 1788-1850, A H, (A.G.L. Shaw & C.M.H. Clark eds) Melbourne University Press, London, 1966, p 27.
- 26. AOT Birth Registration RGD 1838/8519 and Holy Trinity Baptism Registraton NS 349/1-7
- 27. AOT: Application for a 50 acre Grant District of Strangford 25 October 1839 [SC 285 Report No. 91 p 1-6].
- 28. The Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette Friday 23 August 1839
- 29. Ibid, p 6.
- 30. Deeds Office, Property Services, Primary Industry, Water & Environment: General Law Deeds Volume 2 folio 2568.
- 31. AOT: Register of Births Brighton, 1840 [RGD 33/28 registration no. 194] & register of Births Hobart, 1840 [RGD 32/3 registration no. 961]; Holy Trinity Baptism Register, 1840 [NS 349/1-7].
- 32. AOT: Census Records; 1842 CEN1/4 pp. 114 –115.
- 33. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton, 1842 [RGD 33/28 registration no. 255]; St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6 p 5]
- 34. AOT: Census Records; 1842 CEN1/45 pp 21-22.
- 35. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton, 1845 [RGD 33/28 registration no. 358]; St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6]
- 36. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton, 1847 [RGD 33/28 registration no. 440]; St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6]
- 37. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton, 1849 [RGD 33/28 registration no. 540] St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6]
- 38. AOT: Register of births, Brighton, 1850 [RGD 33/26 registration no. 577]
- 39. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton,1851 [RGD 33/29 registration no. 36] St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6]
- 40. AOT: Register of Deaths, 1852 [RGD 35/3 registration no. 1447]
- 41. AOT: Register of Births for Brighton, 1853 [RGD 33/31 registration no. 51] St Mark’s Baptism Register [NS 751/6].
- 42. Deeds Office: Charlotte Wheatley to W. Drinkwater, General Law Deeds Volume 3 folio 8213
- 43. The Mercury, 8 July 1854, p 2 Col 3.
- 44. See the Black Brush section for full details and references regarding these two events.
- 45. Old Fellows History: Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Rebekahs; Grand Lodge of Tennessee http://www.iooftn.org/history.htm
- 46. The Hobart Town Mercury Friday 31 July 1857
- 47. AOT: Register of deaths, Brighton, 1870 [RGD 35 registration no.16].
- 48. AOT: Last Will and Testament of John George Wheatley [AD960/15 page 233 will no. 2858].
- 49. AOT: Register of Deaths for Brighton, 1884 [RGD 35/53 registration no. 75].
- 50. Headstone transcription provided by Judy Dixon (nee Wheatley).
- 51. AOT: Last Will and Testament of John George Wheatley [AD960/15 p 233 will no. 2858].
- 52. AOT: Register of Deaths for Brighton, 1892 [RGD 35/61 registration no. 49].