Ann Goodwin, William Hardy and John Robinson
Ann Goodwin was born about 1806 on Norfolk Island, the daughter of Andrew Goodwin and Lydia Munro, and was only an infant when the family left Norfolk Island for Van Diemen’s Land on the Porpoise at the end of 1807. Ann, the youngest of Andrew and Lydia's daughters, unlike her sisters Sarah, Maria, Elizabeth, and Lucy, was to have a relatively short and unsettled life, and underwent many privations. As a consequence, she was compelled to send most, if not all of her seven sons to the New Town orphanage, condemning them to a much harder start in life than Ann herself, and their many cousins had been blessed with.
Ann Goodwin married the Dromedary convict William Hardy on 7 May 1822 in Hobart, ten months after the birth of her son John.1 Though the identity of John's father can never be proven, it's probable that John was William's child, given that Ann and William married soon after his birth. As the Rev. Knopwood, who baptized the child, never recorded the father's name when a child was born out of wedlock, we assume that John was William's son, just as we can fairly safely assume that Ann's niece Caroline was the child of her sister Maria and Richard Underwood, and her sister Lucy's daughters were the children of William Bunster.
However, Ann's situation was different to Lucy's and Maria's, who were both in monogamous relationships when the fore-mentioned Underwood and Bunster children were born. Ann had two partners during the 1820s - her husband William Hardy, and John Robinson, another Dromedary convict. John is known to have fathered a number of children with Ann, and its remotely possible that Ann's son John too could have been his - after all, that was his name. Furthermore, Ann gave all of her children, John, Joseph, James and Frederick, the surname 'Goodwin' when the 1827 Children's Muster was taken: she did not give John the surname Hardy.
Nor does the fact that John was Ann's only child to be baptised during the 1820s mean that he was William Hardy's son. He was baptised by the Reverend Knopwood, two years before he retired and was replaced by the Rev. William Bedford, who had an entirely different approach towards his convict flock. Unlike Knopwood, Bedford refused to marry couples living in illicit relationships, and probably refused to baptise the children born from such liaisons too. The fact that none of Ann and John Robinson's children were baptised by Bedford, yet Ann and William's later child Robert William, born in 1831, when John Robinson was out of the picture was, lends weight to this argument.
Though John's biological father may never be identified, a general muster males of convicts and free people taken in 1822 identifies William Hardy per Dromedary, employed by Mrs. Baker, as the father of one child.2 Moreover, it was William Hardy who married Ann in 1822, and the Reverend Knopwood who performed the service. On their wedding certificate, William was recorded as a convict per the Dromedary, aged twenty-five, making his birth year about 1797. Ann was naturally recorded as free. They both signed the register using their mark, indicating neither of them could read or write. Their witnesses were William Shribbs and George Northam.3 William Shribbs was another convict who also arrived in V.D.L. in 1820, on the Juliana, and George Northam was the chaplain's clerk at St. David's, the church where Ann and William were married.
William Hardy had been sentenced to transportation for life in March 1819 and embarked, like his shipmate John Robinson, on the Dromedary on 11 September 1819, arriving in Hobart Town on 10 January 1820.4 According to his "Runaway" notices of 1825, he was a native of Suffolk, and had been tried at Bury St. Edmunds before he was sentenced to transportation. According to one researcher, William was born 9 February 1803 and christened later in the month, on 20 February 1803 in Raydon, Suffolk, the illegitimate son of Martha Hardy.5 A shepherd, William was twenty three years old in 1825, and was a small man at 5 feet 2 inches tall, with dark brown hair and light grey eyes.
Upon his arrival in the colony, it appears from his conduct record that he was assigned to the ex-convict Joseph Bonney and his de facto wife Ann Sheridan in New Town, as the first offence on his conduct record occurred while he was in their service a mere eight months later:
September 5, 1820: Neglect of Duty and disobedience of orders as Servant to Mrs. Boney – 50 Lashes and 6 MVP Gang6
Just two months later William was in the service of William Baker, again in New Town, when he failed to attend church, a punishable offence at the time:
November 22, 1820 Baker – Absent from Sunday Muster – Reprimanded (Reverend R. K.)7
According to this article published in the Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser in November 1821, when William Hardy was already in his employ, William Baker was a sawyer:
At a Bench of Magistrates, held at the Court House, on Saturday last, at which the Deputy Judge Advocate presided, William Blunt and Joseph Saunders, convicts were found guilty of a burglary and robbery in the house of William Baker, a sawyer, at New-town, on the night of Sunday the 7th October last; and also of beating and ill-treating the said Wm. Baker and Ann, his wife. - They were sentenced to receive 100 lashes each, and to be transported for the remainder of their original terms to such part of the Territory of New South Wales as His Honor the Lieutenant Governor may think proper.8
It seems that William Hardy was employed as a sawyer as well - later he worked in the timber yards at Birche's Bay, in the Huon, in the government Lumber Yard, near the Domain in Hobart, and was identified as a sawyer on his son Robert William's birth certificate of 1831.9 William remained with Baker despite the relatively minor black mark on his record when he failed to attend church, and stayed in his service for the next six and a half years, when he absconded. Until then, his life appears quite peaceful on the surface. As noted earlier, it seems he may have had a son with Ann Goodwin in late 1821, he married Ann soon after in May 1822, and worked steadily with the one employer. However, simmering below this placid surface, William's private life was in turmoil: Ann left him to live with his fellow Dromedary convict, John Robinson about a year after they married, sometime in 1823.
John Robinson was born in Bristol, England, on 9 October 1799.10 He was tried in Kent in March 1819, and sentenced to 14 years transportation.11 On his arrival in V.D.L. he was described as a tin plate worker, aged 21. He was two inches taller than William Hardy, at 5' 4", with brown hair and grey eyes, with a tattoo of the letters M H on his right arm. And, like William Hardy, he arrived in VDL aboard the Dromedary on 10 January 1820.12
During the 1820s, the records show that John Robinson was living in Bathurst Street, Hobart Town, and consequently, the following advertisement dated 1 February 1823 may be the first time John was mentioned in the newspapers. The fact that he later ran a mixed business in Oatlands adds to the possibility that this was the Dromedary John Robinson.
MESSRS. Guy & Robinson at Mr. Blay's House, Bathurst-street, have received by the last arrivals, a quantity of the following Articles, viz. - Westphalia hams, pine and Cheshire cheese in lead. Durham mustard, pickles, English white and yellow soap, slops of all descriptions, Irish linen shirts, garden feeds, a quantity of jewellery, calicos, muslins, gig harness, saddlery, white lead, & linseed oil, which, together with tea, sugar, tobacco, butter, &c. will be offered at such prices as cannot fail to give satisfaction.13
Later the same year he was fined £2, a considerable sum, in the same street, but was recorded as working in a public work gang. Whether he could run a store at the same time is still a possibility, if Guy, his partner, was a free man:
August 18 1823. PW/ causing a Nuisance in Bathurst St., - fined £2/ Rev. R. K.14
Two months after he was causing trouble in Bathurst Street, John Robinson's "seduction" of Ann Hardy nee Goodwin was recorded in his conduct record. It's tantalising to wonder whether this "public nuisance' might have been a dispute between John and Ann's cuckolded husband. As John was continuing to harbour Ann, it seems that he had been living with her for some time, and had already been warned away:
Public Works October 21, 1823. Seducing from her Husband Ann the Wife of Wm. Hardy & continuing. to harbor the said Ann contrary to good Morals
John's punishment for this seduction was unusual: he was committed to the Watch House from Sun Set to Sun Rise by Adolarious W. H. Humphrey! It seems that this punishment was quite ineffectual, as a child was born to Ann either late in that year, or in 1824. This child, Joseph, was almost certainly John Robinson's child. Joseph was recorded as a four year old in a children's muster taken from September 1827 onwards, published in February 1828. Strangely, this is the only time that Joseph appears in the colonial records by name, though there's the possibilty he was the Robinson male child admitted to the Orphan School in 1829. Its noteworthy that Joseph's baptism is yet to be found, coinciding with the Reverend Bedford's arrival in the colony in 1823 - if Joseph had been the child of William and Ann, Bedford would have baptised him if asked.
|Convict Conduct Record for William Hardy
Image Reproduced Courtesy of the Archives Office of Tasmania
There is a remarkable tale behind this brief entry on William's convict record:
June 5, 1826: Baker - Absconded from his servitude 3rd July last and remained about until approached on the 1st February last 6 months – Chain Gang (AWHH)15
After William absconded from William Baker's employ at New Town, he managed to make his way to Bass Strait, where he joined one of the sealing gangs working there. But before he was returned to Hobart, his name was posted on a long list of "runaways' throughout the latter months of 1825:
POLICE OFFICE, HOBART TOWN.
THE undermentioned Persons, having absented themselves from their usual Places of Residence, all Constables and Others are hereby required to use their utmost Exertions to apprehend and lodge them in safe Custody.
A. W. H. Humphrey,
Superintendent of Police.
I78 William Hardy, 5 feet 2 inches, dark brown hair, light grey eyes, 23 years of age, a shepherd, tried at Bury St. Edmonds, March 1819, sentence life, arrived in this colony by Dromedary, native place Suffolk, absconded from the service of William Baker, New Town, in June last. - L2 Reward. 16
How William reached Bass Strait isn't clear: several boats were seized by runaways during 1825, including one of Mr. Petchey's, and Major Honner's. The Caledonia also carried off a third group of runaways, apparently with the connivance of the captain:
Feb. 16.- The schooner Caledonia, a seizure, from Bass's Straits, sent up by Capt. Whyte of the Duke of York, under the command of his mate, with 2 sailors and two soldiers. She has on board 206 seal skins, 3 casks of stores, is well rigged, has a spare jibb and trysail, 2 bower anchors and cables, &c. &c.
The Caledonia was despatched from Preservation Island on Thursday the 9th February. Mr. Whyte seized her on the 7th, when he found 5 prisoners on board, among whom were John James Holland, formerly employed in the Police Office, & the men who stole Major Honner's boat. They were under the command of Mr. Smith, senior. She was cleared out for Pitt water about 12 months ago, navigated by his son and has been since lengthened and altered from a sloop, to a schooner. Mr. Whyte has the 5 prisoners and 2 others in safe custody on board the Duke of York, and is scouring the Straits, and will no doubt work a reformation among the Islands. The runaways who have escaped thither, are described as being in the most horrible state, committing robbery and every enormity that quarrels and mutual rapine can suggest. Mr. Whyte was proceeding in chace of Mr. Petchey's boat, with 4 men in her, when the Caledonia sailed.
Captain Laughton, of the Helen, has returned from a very successful cruise of three months in the Straits, having no less than 1200 seal skins. He brings news of some desperate characters who infest the islands there, some of whom attempted to carry off his boat; but the thieves running aground on a reef, after a sharp skirmish he recovered it. A horrible murder has been committed at Western Port, ... The boat, which had been sent down by Mr. Petchey, with a party, to collect Mimosa bark on the banks of the Huon River, and had not been heard of, was descried by him at a distance in that quarter.17
Whichever way William made his way to Westernport on the "Main" (mainland), he was returned to Hobart on board the Prince of Wales in March, 1826, apparently having been one of those who were persuaded by Captain Whyte to "come in" on February 1 1826, according the following newspaper article, and the date given on William's convict record.
We understand Captain Smith has written to his friends here as follows:- On his departure in the Caledonia, on a sealing expedition, in the Straits, he found the little vessel, then a sloop, was wholly unfit for that purpose. He accordingly went into Western Port, for the purpose or repairing her; while there, the runaway prisoners came in, in much distress, and Captain Smith persuaded them to return, and give themselves up. 18
William had been absent from the colony for over six months when he returned to Hobart Town onboard the Prince of Wales:
Mar. 22. - The brig Duke of York, Captain Whyte, with the following prisoners, captured among the Islands of Bass's Straits, viz:- J. J. T. Holland, M. Moring, Thomas Fisher, Thomas Self, John Pearce, William Hardy, Andrew Powers, Thomas Buttery, Patrick McCabe, Henry Taylor, Henry Williamson, Robert Bell, Henry Ashworth, Thomas Martin, James Trape, Abel Aspinall, and John James Moring. These men were under a guard of the 40th. John Morrison, a free man, was taken on board from the promontory on the Main, near Western Port, where he left his companions.
The clearest credit is due to the exertions of Captain Whyte, in ridding Bass's Straits of so many bad characters, who have so long infested it.19
As punishment for absconding, William Hardy's convict record notes that he was sentenced to six months on the chain gang at Lemon Springs in September 1826, where he re-offended by breaking his chains and attempting to escape once more.
September 11, 1826: Chain Gang Lemon Springs, Breaking his irons with intent to escape – Admonished (T. Anstey)20
Lemon Springs is situated on the old main road between Hobart and Launceston, near Oatlands, meaning that William Hardy was away from Hobart Town from 3 July 1825 until at least March 1827.
Meanwhile, soon after William Hardy absconded from his servitude on 3 July 1825, John Robinson was recorded as working in his trade as a whitesmith, again in Bathurst Street, when he posted the following notice in the Colonial Times newspaper:
STOLEN or Strayed, from the Premises of the Undersigned, on the Night of the 28th, or early on the Morning of the 29th of Sept. last, an Entire Chestnut coloured Horse, about 14 hands high, has a white blaze on the face, and is a little swelled on the knee of the near fore leg. - A Reward of Four Dollars will be paid to any Person who may give such Information as may lead to the Recovery of the said Horse, on the delivery thereof. - And any Person detaining the said Horse after this Notice, will be prosecuted to the utmost Rigour of the Law, by the Proprietor.
JOHN ROBINSON, Tinman, Bathurst-street.21
John was also supplying the government with iron - apparently he was not just working in tin by then, working as both a blacksmith as well as a whitesmith.
Tendered to Government. Amount paid for Wrought Iron, &c already published - J. Robinson. £0. 6s. 0d.22
Later that year, John had a considerable quantity of tin was stolen from his Bathurst Street workshop:
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1826.
John Richmond, a private in the 40th Regiment, for stealing 23 sheets of tin from John Robinson. Pleaded - Guilty.23
It's apparent that Ann was still living with John at the time, as a second son, James, was born to them sometime in 1826, and William had been away from Hobart Town from July of the previous year. Once again, James was not baptised, and his year of birth is calculated from the 1827 Children's Muster. Much later records prove beyond doubt that this child was John's son - he was mentioned in his father's will of 1876. James is also the only son of Ann Goodwin and James Robinson whose marriage, family, and death has been located at this stage.
Around March the next year, Ann gave birth to yet another boy, who was named Frederick, and once more, the child was not baptised. At around the same time, the ever vigilant, evangelical and priggish William Bedford had Ann and John in his sights:.
March 5 1827. PB/Cohabiting with Mrs. Hardy - wife of Wm. Hardy after being repeatedly warned by the Revd. Mr. Bedford not to do so – to be placed in PB (P.S.)24
John was sent to the Prisoners' Barracks, to work in the Principal Superintendant's Office for an unknown period, but he was back in Bathurst Street around September 1827, still living with Ann, despite all of the Rev. Bedford's admonishments, when the Children's Muster was taken. The results of this muster, taken from September 1827 onwards, were published in February 1828. A note on the muster relating to Ann Hardy nee Goodwin states ""Mother of this Child has been for a length of time living with a man named Robinson now Asst to J R Willis Esq JP." This particular part of the 1827 Children's Census covers males having only a mother living, so it seems that Ann, by lying to the Census taker, had completely excised her husband William Hardy from her life. The boys, John aged 6, Joseph aged 4, James aged 2, and Frederick aged 5 months have the surname of Goodwin recorded. The children are listed as being Protestants.25
As noted in the Muster, John was in the employ of J. R. Willis J. P. at this time - a boot and shoemaker of Hobart, Willis was also appointed a J.P. in 1825.
RICHARD WILLIS, Esquire.
KNOW YE, that We have assigned you Jointly and severally, and every one of you, Our Justices, to keep Our Peace in that Part of Our Colony of New South Wales and its Dependencies, called Van Diemen's Land and its Dependencies…
Hobart Town Gazette 29 April 1825
From this time on, John's fortunes spiralled downwards - Richard Willis was known to be an extremely harsh taskmaster. First, and just after the Children's Census was taken, John was sentenced to work in chains - the most severe punishment he'd been sentenced to receive from the time he set foot in Van Diemen's Land:
November 26 1827. – R. Willis Esq./Neglect of Duty & refusal to work. One month to work in Chains. (T.Simpson.)26
Still with Willis the following year, he was punished even more severely for the same offence.
January 9 1828. – R. Willis esq./Neglect of Duty 50 Lashes (J Simpson)27
A fortnight or so later, John was again sentenced to serve in a chain gang:
January 21 1828 – R. Willis Esq/Neglect of Duty 3 mns Chain gang (J.Simpson)28
Soon after John was back with Willis, he was flogged again and returned to the government as "not assignable'.
April 24 1828 R. Willis Esq./ Neglect of Duty & convicted of Contempt during examination 25 Lashes ret. to Govt. not assignable (J.Simpson.)29
There is circumstantial evidence that John Robinson was sent to the Jerusalem Probation Station, near Ann's sister Sarah. 30 Sarah and Mark Bunker's farm was just a few hundred metres down the road to Oatlands from the station, and Ann was recorded as living there a few years later, when she placed several of her children in the Orphan School. This conjecture ties together several facts: Ann gave birth to yet another son, Thomas, in late 1829 or early 1830. Thomas's birth wasn't registered, nor was he baptized, highly suggestive that he was John Robinson's son. A few months after Thomas was born, Ann admitted a "male ROBINSON" into the newly built orphanage at New Town, the first of all seven of Ann's sons to be sent there. This child's father was listed as "a convict in the Public Works" - but was, in all probability, Ann's oldest son John Hardy, William and Ann's first -born son. No discharge date was given for this boy, but children from the Orphan School were usually apprenticed out by the time they were fourteen years old or so.31
William, in the meantime, was still a long way away from Hobart Town in early 1830 - he'd moved from Lemon Springs to Birches Bay, a wood-cutting establishment in the Huon district, sometime between 1827 and 1830:
February 11, 1830: Charged with stealing Sawed timber the property of the King at Birches Bay – Charge Dismissed, no evidence being adduced.32
While William Hardy remained a prisoner of the Crown throughout 1830, John Robinson was granted his ticket of Leave, after an apparently blameless stint in the Public Works Department:
Colonial Secretary's Office,
July 28th, 1830.
THE Lieutenant Governor has been pleased to grant the undermentioned indulgence.
TICKET OF LEAVE.
John Robinson, 115, Dromedary.
By His Excellency's Command,
John was than effectively a free man, and was permitted to travel throughout the colony, William's movements were still at the whim of the Convict Department. Finally, sometime during 1830, after an absence of around five years, William was returned to New Town, close to Hobart Town where John Robinson and Ann had been living through most of his years away.
December 7, 1830: Out after hours on Sunday night last – to be recalled from his station at New Town and placed in the Lumber Yard.34
The Lumber Yard was situated on the Domain in Hobart Town, where William continued to work as a sawyer.
It seems that William and Ann rekindled their relationship some time after John Robinson had been granted his Ticket of Leave in August 1830, and when William Hardy was working in Hobart Town. In March 1831, John Robinson, now holding his Ticket-of-Leave, applied for permission to marry a free woman by the name of Mary Bailey, but apparently they were not permitted to marry, as there is no consent given by the governor on their application form - the space is blank where he gave his permission to others.35 Despite this setback, John set up his first store in Oatlands two months later, offering an astounding assortment of goods in the following advertisement:
THE undersigned having opened a Store at Oatlands, begs leave to inform the inhabitants of that neighbourhood and the public in general, that he has for sale at most reduced prices the following assortment of goods, ....JOHN ROBINSON. Oatlands, May 13, 183136
Meanwhile, in stark contrast to the relatively comfortable life John Robinson was leading in Oatlands, William Hardy remained a prisoner of the Crown. Consequently Ann's struggle to support her children continued, and by the time John Robinson set up his store in Oatlands, she was expecting the first child to her husband after John's birth a decade earlier. Ann was forced to place two more un-named children in the Queen's Orphan School on 23 June 1831, and as with the "male Robinson" admitted in 1829, no mother's name was recorded on the admission form. These two were simply recorded as the children of "William Hardy", who was "a convict".37 strongly suggesting that they wereAnn and John Robinson's sons, Joseph, and James.
Two months later, on 31 August 1831 John Robinson married Sydney-born Hannah (or Joannah) Kellow, with the Governor's consent and the couple had six children before Hannah died on 20 August 1842. They were Jane, Ann, John, Frances, Barbara and Mary. And three months after John Robinson married Hannah, William Hardy and Ann had the one and only child to be officially registered naming William, a sawyer, as the father.38 This child, another son, was named Robert William. He was born 17 November 1831 in Hobart Town, and baptised 15 April, 1832. 39 Clearly the Reverend Bedford was satisified that Robert William was William Hardy's son, and not John Robinson's. Bedford seemed to have had no qualms about punishing Ann and her sons Joseph, James, and Thomas for "the sins of the father" by refusing to baptise the children of their illicit union.
On 7 January 1832 the Courier reported that William Hardy, among a number of others, was finally granted his Ticket of Leave:
GOVERNMENT NOTICE, No. 6, Colonial Secretary's Office, Jan. 5, 1832.
Tickets of Leave have been granted to the under mentioned persons between the 28 December and 4 January, viz - William Hardy, 178, Dromedary.40
THE undersigned having procured a Wholesale Dealer's license, begs to inform his friends and the public generally, that they can be supplied with excellent Spirits, Wines, &c. to any quantity, at the lowest possible prices.
JOHN ROBINSON. Oatlands, Feb. 24.41
Three years later, on March 13 1835, "William Hardy was reprimanded for keeping late hours," 42 William's convict record also notes this infringement and added the fact that he was still on a Ticket of Leave, and was reprieved by W. Gunn.43
Unfortunately William did not get to experience his new found freedom for long, nor the joy of seeing his last born son. Sadly for him too, Ann was expecting yet another child when William died, on 2 December 1836 in the General Hospital, in Hobart Town, Van Diemen’s Land.44 He was buried on 6 December 1836, recorded as forty years old and free. No cause of death was recorded.45
Ann was again left absolutely destitute, with no means of support - no partner, no husband, three young boys in her care, and worse, another on its way.. A little more than a month after William died, Ann was again compelled to admit the sons who'd been living with her - sons Frederick, nine, Thomas, seven, and Robert, five, to the orphan school on 21 January 1837.46 Records from the orphanage states that their father died, free, in the colonial hospital, and their mother was a widow at Jerusalem.47 Ann and William's last born child, Edward, 48 was born sometime in this same year, according to the Orphan School records, once again the only record that has been found to show that he ever existed, as no baptismal record has been found for this child. Edward was sent to join his brothers a few years later in the Orphan School at the age of six.
Though it's probable that only Ann's son Edward was living with her by this time, life must have been terribly hard for her as well as for her boys in the Orphan School. There is evidence that James was living with Ann's sister Maria a little later on, and it's possible that Maria also sheltered Ann and her two oldest sons, John and Joseph, in her hotel as well. Things were to take a turn for the better for Ann though, when she met and married John Ulmer, a German-born butcher working in Hobart Town. Their story continues on the Ann Goodwin and John Ulmer page.
- 1. AOT Baptism Reg. RGD 1821/1038
- 2. A.O.T. 1822 P.R.O., reel 65, page 85. Bob Hardy e-mail correspondence March 2013
- 3. AOT Marriage Reg. RGD 1822/553
- 4. AOT Index to Tasmanian Convicts http://portal.archives.tas.gov.au/menu.aspx?search=11
- 5. Eric Harry Daly, 23rd December, 2012.
- 6. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania; Hobart, Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 7. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 8. Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser 10 November 1821
- 9. Leonie Oliver e-mail Tas. Rootweb Mailing List 2001
- 10. Ian Byers e-mail correspondence
- 11. John Robinson's headstone states that he was born on 9 October 1799 in Briston, a large village in the county of Norfolk in England. However, this is incorrect. Ian Byers email correspondence
- 12. Description list Con 23/3, A.O.T. - Ian Byers e-mail correspondence
- 13. Hobart Town Gazette 1 February 1823
- 14. Con.31/1/34
- 15. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania; Hobart, Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 16. HTG 8 October and 26 November 1825
- 17. HTG 18 February 1826
- 18. CT 24 February 1826
- 19. HTG 25 March 1826
- 20. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania; Hobart, Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 21. Colonial Times 7 October 1825
- 22. Hobart Town Gazette 4 March 1826
- 23. Hobart Town Gazette 25 November 1826
- 24. Con.31/1/34
- 25. Liz Penprase and Garry Wilson email correspondence - AOT:CSO 1/918 p80
- 26. Con.31/1/34
- 27. Con.31/1/34
- 28. Con.31/1/34
- 29. Con.31/1/34
- 30. To be located
- 31. SWD24p156
- 32. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania; Hobart, Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 33. Launceston Advertiser 2 August 1830
- 34. Convict Conduct Records: Archives Office of Tasmania [CON 31/18]
- 35. Ref Con 45/1
- 36. The Hobart Town Courier 28 May 1831
- 37. SWD24p330
- 38. Leonie Oliver email correspondence to Rootsweb [AUS-Tas] Mailing List, 30 Oct 2001
- 39. AOT Baptism Reg. RGD 1832/4234
- 40. Courier 7 January 1832
- 41. The Hobart Town Courier 6 March 1835
- 42. Colonial Times 1835
- 43. AOT Convict Conduct Record CON 31/18
- 44. AOT Convict Conduct Record CON 31/18
- 45. AOT Burial Reg. RGD 1836/4555
- 46. AOT Register of Children Admitted and Discharged from the Male and Female Orphan School SWD28/1/1
- 47. http://www.orphanschool.org.au/
- 48. SWD7, 28, CSO24/149/1401